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Muso oa Lesotho
Kingdom of Lesotho

Flag of Lesotho Coat of Arms of Lesotho
Motto
Khotso, Pula, Nala
Peace, Rain, Prosperity
Anthem
Lesotho Fatse La Bontata Rona
Map of Lesotho
CapitalMaseru
Government Constitutional monarchy and parliamentary
King
- From 1996Letsie III
Prime Minister
- From 1998Pakalitha Mosisili
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseSenate
- Lower houseNational Assembly
History
October 4, 1966Independence
Commonwealth accessionOctober 4, 1966
Area30,355 km²
Population
- 20092,067,000
 Density68/km²
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 2.6 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 1,299
CurrencyLoti
Flag of None Protected State of Basutoland
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The Kingdom of Lesotho is a constitutional monarchy in Southern Africa.


Background

Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. The Basuto National Party ruled for the first two decades. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990, but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995 and subsequently succeeded by his son, King LETSIE III, in 1996. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. In 1998, violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Botswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002, but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties continue to dispute how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly.[1]

Economy

Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho relies on remittances from Basotho employed in South Africa, customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), and export revenue for the majority of government revenue. However, the government has recently strengthened its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties. Completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 permitted the sale of water to South Africa and generated royalties for Lesotho. Lesotho produces about 90% of its own electrical power needs. As the number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years, a small manufacturing base has developed based on farm products that support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries, as well as an apparel-assembly sector. Despite Lesotho's market-based economy being heavily tied to its neighbor South Africa, the US is an important trade partner because of the export sector's heavy dependence on apparel exports. Exports have grown significantly because of the trade benefits contained in the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. Most of the labor force is engaged in subsistence agriculture, especially livestock herding, although drought has decreased agricultural activity. The extreme inequality in the distribution of income remains a major drawback. Lesotho has signed an Interim Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF. In July 2007, Lesotho signed a Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US worth $362.5 million. Economic growth dropped in 2009, due mainly to the effects of the global economic crisis as demand for the country's exports declined and SACU revenue fell precipitously when South Africa - the primary contributor to the SACU revenue pool - went into recession, but growth returned to 3.5% in 2010.[2]

King

  • Letsie III () (February 7, 1996 - )


Prime Minister

  • Pakalitha Mosisili () (May 29, 1998 - )

Nation

Basotho Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview
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