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République du Sénégal
Republic of Senegal

Flag of Senegal Coat of Arms of Senegal
Motto
Un Peuple, Un But, Une Foi
One People, One Goal, One Faith
Anthem
Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons
Everyone strum your koras, strike the balafons
Map of Senegal
Confederation:
Senegambia (1982-89)
CapitalDakar
Government Semi-presidential republic
President
- From 2000Abdoulaye Wade
Prime Minister
- From 2009Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye
Legislature Parliament
- Upper houseSenate
- Lower houseNational Assembly
History
June 20, 1960Independence within the Mali Federation
August 20, 1960Mali Federation dissolved
Area196,723 km²
Population
- 200913,711,597
 Density69.7/km²
GDP2009 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 24.2 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 1,772
CurrencyCFA franc
Flag of Mali Federation Mali Federation
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The Republic of Senegal is a semi-presidential republic in Western Africa.


Background

The French colonies of Senegal and the French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted their independence as the Mali Federation in 1960. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never carried out, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance (MFDC) has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s, and several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict. Nevertheless, Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until current President Abdoulaye WADE was elected in 2000. He was reelected in February 2007 and has amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and to weaken the opposition, part of the president's increasingly autocratic governing style. Senegal has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation.[1]

Economy

Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance. The country's key export industries are phosphate mining, fertilizer production, and commercial fishing. The country is also working on iron ore and oil exploration projects. In January 1994, Senegal undertook a bold and ambitious economic reform program with the support of the international donor community. Government price controls and subsidies have been steadily dismantled. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to the reform program, with real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2007. Annual inflation had been pushed down to the single digits. The country was adversely affected by the global economic downturn in 2009 and GDP growth fell below 2%. As a member of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU), Senegal is working toward greater regional integration with a unified external tariff and a more stable monetary policy. High unemployment, however, continues to prompt illegal migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe. Under the IMF's Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief program, Senegal benefited from eradication of two-thirds of its bilateral, multilateral, and private-sector debt. In 2007, Senegal and the IMF agreed to a new, non-disbursing, Policy Support Initiative program which was completed in 2010. Senegal received its first disbursement from the $540 million Millennium Challenge Account compact it signed in September 2009 for infrastructure and agriculture development. In 2010, the Senegalese people protested against frequent power cuts. The government pledged to expand capacity by 2012 and to promote renewable energy but until Senegal has more capacity, more protests are likely and economic activity will be hindered. During the year, bakers protested government price controls on bread. Foreign investment in Senegal is constrained by Senegal's business environment, which has slipped in recent years, and by perceptions of corruption.[2]

President

  • Abdoulaye Wade () (April 1, 2000 - )


Prime Minister

  • Souleymane Ndéné Ndiaye () (April 30, 2009 - )

Nation

Senegalese Polities

Neighbouring Nations

References

  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview
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