جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Miṣr al-ʿArabiyyah

Arab Republic of Egypt

Flag of Egypt Coat of Arms of Egypt
Bilady, Bilady, Bilady
My country, my country, my country
Map of Egypt
Government Military junta
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces
- From 2011Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Prime Minister
- From 2011Essam Sharaf
September 11, 1971Constitution
February 11, 2011Interim administration
Area1,002,450 km²
- 201079,089,650
GDP2010 (PPP)
- TotalUS$ 501.9 billion
- Per capitaUS$ 6,347
CurrencyEgyptian pound
Flag of the United Arab Republic UAR

The Arab Republic of Egypt is a country in Africa. Following popular protests in 2011 the country is currently administered by a military junta awaiting the adoption of a new constitution, and elections to be held.


The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.[1]


Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. The global financial crisis slowed the reform efforts. The budget deficit climbed to over 8% of GDP and Egypt's GDP growth slowed to 4.6% in 2009, predominately due to reduced growth in export-oriented sectors, including manufacturing and tourism, and Suez Canal revenues. In 2010, the government spent more on infrastructure and public projects, and exports drove GDP growth to more than 5%, but GDP growth in 2011 is unlikely to bounce back to pre-global financial recession levels, when it stood at 7%. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth over the past few years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remain poor.[2]

Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces

  • Mohamed Hussein Tantawi () (February 11, 2011 - )

Prime Minister

  • Essam Sharaf () (March 7, 2011 - )


Egyptian Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The CIA World Factbook: Introduction - Background
  2. The CIA World Factbook: Economy - Overview
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