Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der heiligen ungarischen Stephanskrone
A birodalmi tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a magyar Szent Korona országai
Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie
Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia

Austro-Hungarian Monarchy

Dual monarchy
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy 1867–1918
Flag of Austria-Hungary Coat of Arms of Austria-Hungary
Indivisibiliter ac Inseparabiliter
Indivisible and Inseparable
Imperial anthem
Map of Austria-Hungary
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy Cisleithania:
Flag of Austria
Flag of the Czech Republic
Flag of None Transleithania:
Civil Ensign of Hungary
Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
CapitalVienna and Budapest
Government Constitutional monarchy
- 1867-1916Francis Joseph I
- 1916-1918Charles I
March 30, 18671867 Compromise
October 28, 1918Czecho-Slovak independence
October 29, 1918Slovak, Croat and Serb independence
November 25, 1918Vojvodina
October 31, 1918Dissolution
- in 1919 & in 1920Dissolution treaties
Area676,615 km²
- 191452,800,000
CurrencyGulden, Krone
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy Austria German-Austria Flag of Austria
Hungary Civil Ensign of Hungary
Czechoslovakia Flag of the Czech Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic Flag of None
Poland Flag of Poland
Yugoslavia Flag of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Kingdom of Italy Flag of the Kingdom of Italy

The Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918) was a constitutional monarchy in Central Europe.


The present constitution of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of the emperor Charles VI, first promulgated on the 19th of April 1713, whereby the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine (), descending by right of primogeniture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of their extinction, to the female line, and whereby the indissolubility and indivisibility of the monarchy are determined; is based, further, on the diploma of the emperor Francis Joseph I. of the 10th of October 1860, whereby the constitutional form of government is introduced; and, lastly, on the so-called Ausgleich or "Compromise," concluded on the 8th of February 1867, whereby the relations between Austria and Hungary were regulated.

The two separate states — Austria and Hungary — are completely independent of each other, and each has its own parliament and its own government. The unity of the monarchy is expressed in the common head of the state, who bears the title Emperor of Austria and Apostolic King of Hungary, and in the common administration of a series of affairs, which affect both halves of the Dual Monarchy. These are:

  1. foreign affairs, including diplomatic and consular representation abroad;
  2. the army, including the navy, but excluding the annual voting of recruits, and the special army of each state;
  3. finance in so far as it concerns joint expenditure.

For the administration of these common affairs there are three joint ministries: the ministry of foreign affairs and of the imperial and royal house, the ministry of war, and the ministry of finance. It must be noted that the authority of the joint ministers is restricted to common affairs, and that they are not allowed to direct or exercise any influence on affairs of government affecting separately one of the halves of the monarchy.

The minister of foreign affairs conducts the international relations of the Dual Monarchy, and can conclude international treaties. But commercial treaties, and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of both states. The minister of war is the head for the administration of all military affairs, except those of the Austrian Landwehr and of the Hungarian Honveds, which are committed to the ministries for national defence of the two respective states. But the supreme command of the army is vested in the monarch, who has the power to take all measures regarding the whole army. It follows, therefore, that the total armed power of the Dual Monarchy forms a whole under the supreme command of the sovereign. The minister of finance has charge of the finances of common affairs, prepares the joint budget, and administers the joint state debt. Till 1909 the provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina were also administered by the joint minister of finance, excepting matters exclusively dependent on the minister of war. For the control of the common finances, there is appointed a joint supreme court of accounts, which audits the accounts of the joint ministries. [1]


  • Francis Joseph I () (March 30, 1867 - November 21, 1916)
  • Charles I () (November 21, 1916 - October 31, 1918)




  1. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.)
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