Poblacht na hÉireann
Irish Republic

Unrecognized state
St. Patrick's Saltire 1919–1922 Flag of Ireland
Flag of Ireland Flag of the Irish Republic
Map of Ireland
Government Republic
President of the Dáil Éireann
- 1919Cathal Brugha
- 1919-1922Éamon de Valera
- 1922Arthur Griffith
- 1922W. T. Cosgrave
Legislature Dáil Éireann
April 24, 1916 Proclamation
January 21, 1919Declaration of Independence
December 6, 1921Anglo-Irish Treaty
January 7, 1922Treaty adopted by the Dáil Éireann
December 6, 1922Constitution of the Irish Free State
December 7, 1922Disestablished
December 8, 1922Northern Ireland opts out
Area84,116 km²
- 19214,400,000
St. Patrick's Saltire Ireland Irish Free State Flag of Ireland

The Irish Republic was an unrecognized state proclaimed in Ireland on 24 April 1916, and on January 21, 1919 it declared independence from the United Kingdom.

The British authorities divided the island and tried to replace it with the two autonomous regions of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland. This solution was not acceptable to the republicans, but the Anglo-Irish Treaty on December 6, 1921 resulted in a compromise that established the Irish Free State in the south.

The north of the island would remain within the United Kingdom, but the south would be allowed to break off to form a free state under the British monarch, separate from the United Kingdom. On the December 6, 1922 the Constitution of the Irish Free State was adopted.

History Edit

Nationalism was and is a potent populist force in Irish politics. A home rule bill passed in 1914, but its implementation was suspended until war in Europe ended. Believing the mantra: "England's problem is Ireland's opportunity," and tapping into a mood of Gaelic revivalism, Padraic Pearse and James Connolly led the unsuccessful Easter Rising of 1916. Pearse and the other 1916 leaders declared an independent Irish republic, but a lack of popular support doomed the rebellion, which lasted a week and destroyed large portions of Dublin. The decision by the British military government to execute the leaders of the rebellion, coupled with the British Government's threat of conscripting the Irish to fight in the Great War, alienated public opinion and produced massive support for Sinn Féin in the 1918 general election. Under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, the elected Sinn Féin deputies constituted themselves as the first Dáil. Tensions only increased: British attempts to smash Sinn Féin ignited the Anglo-Irish War of 1919-1921.

The end of the war brought the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921, which established the Ireland of 26 counties within the British Commonwealth and recognized the partition of the island into Ireland and Northern Ireland, although this was supposedly a temporary measure. The six predominantly Protestant counties of northeast Ulster (|) - Northern Ireland - remained a part of the United Kingdom with limited self-government. A significant Irish minority repudiated the treaty settlement because of the continuance of subordinate ties to the British monarch and the partition of the island. This opposition led to further hostilities - a civil war (1922-23), which was won by the pro-treaty forces.[1]

Events Edit

  • Proclamation (24 April 1916)
  • Declaration of Independence (January 21, 1919)
  • Anglo-Irish Treaty (December 6, 1921)
  • Treaty adopted by the Dáil Éireann (January 7, 1922)
  • Constitution of the Irish Free State (December 6, 1922)
  • Disestablished (December 7, 1922)
  • Northern Ireland opts out (December 8, 1922)

President of the Dáil Éireann

  • Cathal Brugha () (January 22, 1919 - April 1, 1919)
  • Éamon de Valera () (April 1, 1919 - January 9, 1922)
  • Arthur Griffith () (January 9, 1922 - August 12, 1922)
  • W. T. Cosgrave () (August 12, 1922 - December 7, 1922)


Irish Polities

Neighbouring Nations


  1. The United States Department of State - Background Note: Ireland
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